Denomination Differences

Seventh-Day Adventist vs. Reformed Beliefs

Seventh-Day AdventistReformed
a.k.a.Calvinist
Number of Members22,000,000[1]75,000,000
How does one get saved?Sola fide: Repent of your sins and believe in Jesus Christ's death and resurrection alone to save you.[2]Sola fide: Repent of your sins and believe in Jesus Christ's death and resurrection alone to save you.
Who gets saved?Anyone who chooses by his own free will to believe and accept God's gift of grace will be saved.Those who God chooses to call will be saved and no one else.
Can one lose his salvation?Yes, a Christian can lose his salvation by apostasy.[2]Eternal security: No, once a Christian is saved, he is always saved.
Who gets baptized and why?Saved people get baptized as a public demonstration of their new lives.[3]Saved people and their infant children get baptized as a sign of God's grace.[4]
How should baptism be done?Baptism should be by immersion.[3]Baptism can be by immersion, pouring, or sprinkling.
When does one receive the Holy Spirit?The Holy Spirit is received at baptism.[5]The Holy Spirit is received at the moment of salvation.[6]
What is the trinity?The Trinity is God existing as one god in three equal, eternal, cosubstantial persons: God the Father, God the Son (Jesus Christ), and God the Holy Spirit.The Trinity is God existing as one god in three equal, eternal, cosubstantial persons: God the Father, God the Son (Jesus Christ), and God the Holy Spirit.
What is the human nature?Total depravity: Human nature is corrupt, naturally inclined to evil, and incapable of choosing God on his own.Total depravity: Human nature is corrupt, naturally inclined to evil, and incapable of choosing God on his own.
Are we guilty of Adam's original sin?No, we are not guilty of Adam's sin, but we did inherit the consequences and a corrupt human nature from him, causing us all to sin.Federalism: Yes, Adam represented all of the human race, and all are guilty of his sin.
Are Christians required to keep the Old Testament ceremonial laws?Yes, all Old Testament laws are binding on Christians except for animal sacrifices.No, the ceremonial laws of Judaism were fulfilled and done away with by Jesus.
Can Christians become sinless in this earthly life?Most believe no, although Christians can and should sin less, they can never become sinless in this life.[7]No, although Christians can and should sin less, they can never become sinless in this life.
Do the elements of communion become the body and blood of Christ?No, the elements merely symbolically represent the body and blood of Christ.No, the elements do not become the body and blood of Christ, but Christ is present in an unknown way.
Can one be baptized of behalf of someone who has died?No, the dead cannot be baptized.No, the dead cannot be baptized.
What happens if a saved person dies without being perfect?Once Christians leave their sinful bodies, nothing else is needed to receive glorified, sinless bodies.[8]Once Christians leave their sinful bodies, nothing else is needed to receive glorified, sinless bodies.[9][10]
Did Mary ever sin?Yes, Mary sinned like all other humans except Jesus.Yes, Mary sinned like all other humans except Jesus.
What spiritual gifts are available today?Continuationism: All spiritual gifts are still available to believers.[11]Cessationism: Spiritual gifts used for serving are available today, while gifts used as signs have ceased.[12]
What framework has God used in dealing with man?Covenant theology: God acts either within the covenant of works or the covenant of grace.[13]
What is the gift of tongues?The gift of tongues is the ability to speak foreign human languages without knowing how.[14]
What are the requirements for clergy?Experienced men above reproach, faithful to their wives and with with obedient children if applicable, and able to teach are to be appointed as pastors.
How many church ordinances/​sacraments are there?The church has three ordinances: Baptism, Holy Communion, and Footwashing.[15]The church has two ordinances: Baptism and Holy Communion.
To whom do Christians need to confess their sins?Confession should be made directly to God, but confession to another believer is beneficial for some sins.Confession should be made directly to God, but confession to another believer is beneficial for some sins.
How should a church be structured?Church congregations should be governed by a local conference which its congregation elects a representative to, and conferences elect representatives to higher conferences governing them.Varies widely
What day of the week should Christians worship?Christians should worship on Saturday.Christians worship on Sunday.
How does God's revelation come to us today?Sola scriptura: The Bible is the only infallible source of God's revelation, sufficient for all faith and practice.[16]Prima scriptura: There are many sources of God's revelation, although none can contradict the Bible.
How was the Bible written?Dynamic inspiration: God inspired the thoughts of the human authors, but the words were chosen by the authors.[17]Verbal plenary inspiration: The Bible was written by men who had every word supernaturaly inspired by God.[18]
How many books are in the Bible?There are 66 canonical books of the Bible: 39 Old Testament books and 27 New Testament books.There are 66 canonical books of the Bible: 39 Old Testament books and 27 New Testament books.
Is the Bible inerrant?The Bible is infallible, but not every word is without error.[19][20]Yes, the Bible was written without any error.[18]
Who can speak with God's authority today?Nobody today can speak for God.
How was the earth created?Creationism: The earth was spoken into existence by God.Creationism: The earth was spoken into existence by God.
What is marriage?Marriage is a covenant before God between one man and one woman.[21]Marriage is a covenant before God between one man and one woman.[22]
Is sex permissible outside marriage?No, sex outside of marriage is not permissible.[23]No, sex outside of marriage is not permissible.[24][25]
When is divorce permissible?Divorce is permissible for adultery or desertion.[21][26]Divorce is permissible for adultery or desertion.[27][28]
May a Christian remarry while his former spouse is still alive?The innocent party to the adultery may remarry.[26]The innocent party to the adultery may remarry.[29]
When does a fetus become human?Humanity begins at conception.[30]Humanity begins at conception.[31][32]
Is contraception permissible?Yes, contraceptives are permissible.[33]Yes, contraceptives are permissible.[34]
Are blood transfusions permissible?Yes, blood transfusions are permissible.[35]Yes, blood transfusions are permissible.
Should Christians drink alcohol?No, alcohol should be totally avoided.[36][37][38]Varies widely
Should Christians fight in wars?Varies widelyYes, Christians should fight in just wars.[39]
Whom does the Holy Spirit come from?The Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son.[40]The Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son.[41]
Who can be demon-possessed?Demons can possess unbelievers but not Christians.
Do icons glorify God?Most believe no, icons violate the Second Commandment against graven images. Icons of Christ are especially prohibited.[42][43][44]
Where does a Christian's soul go after death?Souls are unconscious after death until God raises them from "sleep".[45][46][47]Christians immediately go to heaven when they die.[9][48]