Denomination Differences

Seventh-Day Adventist vs. Eastern Orthodox Beliefs

Seventh-Day AdventistEastern Orthodox
Number of Members22,000,000[1]210,000,000[2]
How does one get saved?Sola fide: Repent of your sins and believe in Jesus Christ's death and resurrection alone to save you.[3]Repent of your sins, believe in Jesus Christ's death and resurrection, and be baptized.[4]
Who gets saved?Anyone who chooses by his own free will to believe and accept God's gift of grace will be saved.Anyone who chooses by his own free will to believe and accept God's gift of grace will be saved.
Can one lose his salvation?Yes, a Christian can lose his salvation by apostasy.[3]Yes, a Christian can lose his salvation by apostasy.
Who gets baptized and why?Saved people get baptized as a public demonstration of their new lives.[5]The unsaved, typically as infants, get baptized as the first sacrament of Christian initiation, cleansing them of all sins.
How should baptism be done?Baptism should be by immersion.[5]Baptism should be by triple immersion.
When does one receive the Holy Spirit?The Holy Spirit is received at baptism.[6]The Holy Spirit is received at chrismation, generally immediately after baptism.
What is the trinity?The Trinity is God existing as one god in three equal, eternal, cosubstantial persons: God the Father, God the Son (Jesus Christ), and God the Holy Spirit.The Trinity is God existing as one god in three equal, eternal, cosubstantial persons: God the Father, God the Son (Jesus Christ), and God the Holy Spirit.
What is the human nature?Total depravity: Human nature is corrupt, naturally inclined to evil, and incapable of choosing God on his own.Human nature is intrinsically good but is wounded and incapable of choosing God in our fallen environment.[7][8]
Are we guilty of Adam's original sin?No, we are not guilty of Adam's sin, but we did inherit the consequences and a corrupt human nature from him, causing us all to sin.No, we are not guilty of Adam's sin, nor did we inherit a sinful nature from him, but we did inherit the consequences.[9]
Are Christians required to keep the Old Testament ceremonial laws?Yes, all Old Testament laws are binding on Christians except for animal sacrifices.No, the ceremonial laws of Judaism were fulfilled and done away with by Jesus.
Can Christians become sinless in this earthly life?Most believe no, although Christians can and should sin less, they can never become sinless in this life.[10]Yes, Christian perfection is possible.
Do the elements of communion become the body and blood of Christ?No, the elements merely symbolically represent the body and blood of Christ.Metousiosis: Yes, the bread and the wine change in essence into the body and blood of Christ.
Can one be baptized of behalf of someone who has died?No, the dead cannot be baptized.No, the dead cannot be baptized.
What happens if a saved person dies without being perfect?Once Christians leave their sinful bodies, nothing else is needed to receive glorified, sinless bodies.[11]There is no purgatory, but Christians will continue in theosis after death.[12]
Did Mary ever sin?Yes, Mary sinned like all other humans except Jesus.Mary was prone to sin like anyone else, but no, through her own free will she still never did.
What spiritual gifts are available today?Continuationism: All spiritual gifts are still available to believers.[13]Continuationism: All spiritual gifts are still available to believers.
What is the gift of tongues?Speaking in tongues is sometimes unintelligible and sometimes foreign human languages.[14][15]
What are the requirements for clergy?Priests must be men over 30 ordained by bishops.
How many church ordinances/​sacraments are there?The church has three ordinances: Baptism, Holy Communion, and Footwashing.[16]The church has seven sacraments: Baptism, Chrism, Holy Eucharist, Confession, Ordination, Marriage, and Holy Unction.[17]
To whom do Christians need to confess their sins?Confession should be made directly to God, but confession to another believer is beneficial for some sins.Confession should be made to God before a priest.[18]
How should a church be structured?Church congregations should be governed by a local conference which its congregation elects a representative to, and conferences elect representatives to higher conferences governing them.Episcopal: Churches should be governed by the bishop in that episcopacy, who in turn is governed by a patriarch of an autocephalous church. The Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople is first among equals.
What day of the week should Christians worship?Christians should worship on Saturday.Christians worship on Sunday.
How does God's revelation come to us today?Sola scriptura: The Bible is the only infallible source of God's revelation, sufficient for all faith and practice.[19]Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition have equal authority and comprise one finished deposit of faith.
How was the Bible written?Dynamic inspiration: God inspired the thoughts of the human authors, but the words were chosen by the authors.[20]
How many books are in the Bible?There are 66 canonical books of the Bible: 39 Old Testament books and 27 New Testament books.There are 76 canonical books of the Bible: 39 protocanonical books, 10 deuterocanonical books, and 27 New Testament books.
Is the Bible inerrant?The Bible is infallible, but not every word is without error.[21][22]
Who can speak with God's authority today?The church as a whole speaks with God's authority at ecumenical councils.
How was the earth created?Creationism: The earth was spoken into existence by God.
What is marriage?Marriage is a covenant before God between one man and one woman.[23]Marriage is a covenant before God between one man and one woman.
Is sex permissible outside marriage?No, sex outside of marriage is not permissible.[24]No, sex outside of marriage is not permissible.
When is divorce permissible?Divorce is permissible for adultery or desertion.[23][25]Divorce is permissible for adultery, abuse, or abandonment.[26][27]
May a Christian remarry while his former spouse is still alive?The innocent party to the adultery may remarry.[25]Yes, a Christian may remarry a second or third time for human weakness.[27]
When does a fetus become human?Humanity begins at conception.[28]Humanity begins at conception.[29]
Is contraception permissible?Yes, contraceptives are permissible.[30]Most believe that yes, contraceptives are permissible.[31][32]
Are blood transfusions permissible?Yes, blood transfusions are permissible.[33]Yes, blood transfusions are permissible.
Should women cover their heads?Varies widely
Should Christians drink alcohol?No, alcohol should be totally avoided.[34][35][36]Yes, drinking alcohol is fine as long as one does not get drunk.
Should Christians fight in wars?Varies widelyYes, Christians can fight in just wars.[37][38][39]
Whom does the Holy Spirit come from?The Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son.[40]The Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father alone.
Do icons glorify God?Yes, icons are holy and should be venerated.[41]
Where does a Christian's soul go after death?Souls are unconscious after death until God raises them from "sleep".[42][43][44]After death, souls sit conscious in an Intermediate State, with a foretaste of heaven for Christians.[45]