Denomination Differences

Messianic Judaism vs. Presbyterian Beliefs

Messianic JudaismPresbyterian
Number of Members350,000[1]39,000,000
How does one get saved?Sola fide: Repent of your sins and believe in Jesus Christ's death and resurrection alone to save you.Sola fide: Repent of your sins and believe in Jesus Christ's death and resurrection alone to save you.
Who gets saved?Anyone who chooses by his own free will to believe and accept God's gift of grace will be saved.Those who God chooses to call will be saved and no one else.
Can one lose his salvation?Eternal security: No, once a Christian is saved, he is always saved.Eternal security: No, once a Christian is saved, he is always saved.
Who gets baptized and why?Saved people get baptized as a public demonstration of their new lives.Saved people and their infant children get baptized as a sign of God's grace.[2]
How should baptism be done?Baptism should be by immersion.Baptism should be by sprinkling water on the head.
When does one receive the Holy Spirit?The Holy Spirit is received at the moment of salvation.The Holy Spirit is received at the moment of salvation.[3]
What is the trinity?Most believe the Trinity is God existing as one god in three equal, eternal, cosubstantial persons: God the Father, God the Son (Jesus Christ), and God the Holy Spirit.The Trinity is God existing as one god in three equal, eternal, cosubstantial persons: God the Father, God the Son (Jesus Christ), and God the Holy Spirit.
What is the human nature?Humans have a יֵצֶר הַרַע (yetzer hara)—an inclination to do evil—and, upon reaching 12 for girls and 13 for boys, develop a יֵצֶר הַטוֹב (yetzer hatov)—a weaker inclination to do good.Total depravity: Human nature is corrupt, naturally inclined to evil, and incapable of choosing God on his own.
Are we guilty of Adam's original sin?No, we are not guilty of Adam's sin, but we did inherit the consequences and a corrupt human nature from him, causing us all to sin.Federalism: Yes, Adam represented all of the human race, and all are guilty of his sin.
Are Christians required to keep the Old Testament ceremonial laws?Yes, Messianic Jews should follow the Torah, although Gentile Christians are not required to.No, the ceremonial laws of Judaism were fulfilled and done away with by Jesus.
Can Christians become sinless in this earthly life?No, although Christians can and should sin less, they can never become sinless in this life.No, although Christians can and should sin less, they can never become sinless in this life.
Do the elements of communion become the body and blood of Christ?No, the elements merely symbolically represent the body and blood of Christ.No, the elements do not become the body and blood of Christ, but Christ is present in an unknown way.
Can one be baptized of behalf of someone who has died?No, the dead cannot be baptized.No, the dead cannot be baptized.
What happens if a saved person dies without being perfect?Once Christians leave their sinful bodies, nothing else is needed to receive glorified, sinless bodies.Once Christians leave their sinful bodies, nothing else is needed to receive glorified, sinless bodies.[4][5]
Did Mary ever sin?Yes, Mary sinned like all other humans except Jesus.Yes, Mary sinned like all other humans except Jesus.
What spiritual gifts are available today?Cessationism: Spiritual gifts used for serving are available today, while gifts used as signs have ceased.[3]
What framework has God used in dealing with man?Covenant theology: God acts either within the covenant of works or the covenant of grace.[6]
How many church ordinances/​sacraments are there?Messianic Jews should practice Immersion.[7][8][9][10][11]The church has two sacraments: Baptism and Holy Communion.[12]
To whom do Christians need to confess their sins?Confession should be made directly to God, but confession to another believer is beneficial for some sins.[13][14]Confession should be made directly to God, but confession to another believer is beneficial for some sins.
How should a church be structured?Congregationalist: Every church congregation should be independent and governed by its members.Presbyterian: Churches should be governed by its own elders, who in turn are governed by a presbytery comprising the elders from the region, which is governed by a general assembly of commissioners from each presbytery.
What day of the week should Christians worship?Messianic Jews observe Shabbat on Saturday.Christians worship on Sunday.
How does God's revelation come to us today?Prima scriptura: There are many sources of God's revelation, although none can contradict the Bible.[15]Prima scriptura: There are many sources of God's revelation, although none can contradict the Bible.
How many books are in the Bible?There are 66 canonical books of the Bible: 39 Old Testament books and 27 New Testament books.There are 66 canonical books of the Bible: 39 Old Testament books and 27 New Testament books.
Is the Bible inerrant?Varies widely[16]
Who can speak with God's authority today?Nobody today can speak for God.
What is marriage?Marriage is a covenant before God between one man and one woman.[17]Varies widely[18][19][20]
Is sex permissible outside marriage?No, sex outside of marriage is not permissible.[21]Varies widely[22][20]
When is divorce permissible?Divorce is permissible for adultery, abuse, or abandonment.[23]Divorce is permissible for adultery or desertion.[24]
May a Christian remarry while his former spouse is still alive?Yes, a Messianic Jew may freely remarry after a divorce which was for a valid reason.[23]The innocent party to the adultery may remarry.[25]
When does a fetus become human?Humanity begins at conception.[26][27]Most believe humanity begins at conception. Some say it is unknown when humanity begins.[28][29][30]
Is contraception permissible?Yes, contraceptives are permissible as long as the couple eventually have at least two children.[31]Yes, contraceptives are permissible.
Are blood transfusions permissible?Yes, blood transfusions are permissible.[32][33]Yes, blood transfusions are permissible.
Should women cover their heads?Varies widely[34][35][36]
Should Christians drink alcohol?Yes, drinking alcohol is fine as long as one does not get drunk.[37]Yes, drinking alcohol is fine as long as one does not get drunk.[38]
Should Christians fight in wars?Yes, Christians should fight in just wars.[39]
How should Christians musically worship God?Any style of worship music is acceptable.[40]
Whom does the Holy Spirit come from?The Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son.[41][42]
Do icons glorify God?Varies widely[43][44][45][46]
Where does a Christian's soul go after death?Christians immediately go to heaven when they die.[5]