Denomination Differences

Lutheran vs. Oriental Orthodox Beliefs

LutheranOriental Orthodox
a.k.a.
  • Miaphysite
  • Coptic
Number of Members77,000,000[1]52,000,000[2]
How does one get saved?Repent of your sins, believe in Jesus Christ's death and resurrection, and be baptized.Repent of your sins, believe in Jesus Christ's death and resurrection, and be baptized.[3][4][5]
Who gets saved?Those who God chooses to call will be saved and no one else.Anyone who chooses by his own free will to believe and accept God's gift of grace will be saved.
Can one lose his salvation?Yes, a Christian can lose his salvation by apostasy.Yes, a Christian can lose his salvation by apostasy.
Who gets baptized and why?The unsaved, typically as infants, get baptized as the first sacrament of Christian initiation, cleansing them of all sins.The believing but unsaved get baptized as part of their salvation.
How should baptism be done?Baptism should be by pouring water on the head.Baptism should be by triple immersion.
When does one receive the Holy Spirit?The Holy Spirit is received at the moment of salvation.The Holy Spirit is received at baptism.
What is the trinity?The Trinity is God existing as one god in three equal, eternal, cosubstantial persons: God the Father, God the Son (Jesus Christ), and God the Holy Spirit.The Trinity is God existing as one god in three equal, eternal, cosubstantial persons: God the Father, God the Son (Jesus Christ), and God the Holy Spirit.
What is the human nature?Bondage of the will: Human nature is corrupt, naturally inclined to evil, and incapable of choosing God on his own.Human nature is corrupt and naturally inclined to evil.[6]
Are we guilty of Adam's original sin?Federalism: Yes, Adam represented all of the human race, and all are guilty of his sin.No, we are not guilty of Adam's sin, but we did inherit the consequences and a corrupt human nature from him, causing us all to sin.[6][7]
Are Christians required to keep the Old Testament ceremonial laws?No, the ceremonial laws of Judaism were fulfilled and done away with by Jesus.Yes, all Old Testament laws are binding on Christians.
Can Christians become sinless in this earthly life?No, although Christians can and should sin less, they can never become sinless in this life.Yes, Christian perfection is possible.
Do the elements of communion become the body and blood of Christ?Sacramental union: No, the elements do not become the body and blood of Christ, but Christ's body and blood are non-physically joined to the elements.Yes, the bread and the wine change into the body and blood of Christ in an unknown way.[8][9]
Can one be baptized of behalf of someone who has died?No, the dead cannot be baptized.No, the dead cannot be baptized.
What happens if a saved person dies without being perfect?Once Christians leave their sinful bodies, nothing else is needed to receive glorified, sinless bodies.[10][11][12]Once Christians leave their sinful bodies, nothing else is needed to receive glorified, sinless bodies.[13]
Did Mary ever sin?Most believe that, yes, Mary sinned like all other humans except Jesus.Mary was prone to sin like anyone else, but no, through her own free will she still never did.
What spiritual gifts are available today?Most believe cessationism: Spiritual gifts used for serving are available today, while gifts used as signs have ceased.[14]
What is the gift of tongues?The gift of tongues is the ability to speak foreign human languages without knowing how.[15][16]
What are the requirements for clergy?Varies widely
How many church ordinances/​sacraments are there?The church has two sacraments: Baptism and Holy Communion.The church has seven sacraments: Baptism, Confirmation, Penance, Holy Eucharist, Unction of the Sick, Matrimony, and Priesthood.[17][18][19]
To whom do Christians need to confess their sins?General sinfulness should be confessed to a priest. This is usually done as a group during a service.Sins must be privately confessed to a priest within 40 days.[20][21][22][23]
How should a church be structured?Varies widelyEpiscopal: Churches should be governed by the bishop in that eparchy, who in turn is governed by a patriarch of an autocephalous church.
What day of the week should Christians worship?Christians worship on Sunday.Christians worship on Sunday, although the Sabbath should be observed on Saturday.
How does God's revelation come to us today?Sola scriptura: The Bible is the only infallible source of God's revelation, sufficient for all faith and practice.Sacred Scripture and Sacred Tradition have equal authority and comprise one finished deposit of faith.[24]
How was the Bible written?Varies widely[25][26]
How many books are in the Bible?There are 66 canonical books of the Bible: 39 Old Testament books and 27 New Testament books.Varies widely
Is the Bible inerrant?Varies widely[27][28]
Who can speak with God's authority today?The church as a whole speaks with God's authority at ecumenical councils.[29]
What is marriage?Varies widely[30][31][32]Marriage is a covenant before God between one man and one woman.[33][34][35]
Is sex permissible outside marriage?No, sex outside of marriage is not permissible.[36][37]No, sex outside of marriage is not permissible.
When is divorce permissible?Divorce is permissible for adultery or desertion.[38][39]Divorce is seldomly permissible upon investigation by a clergical committee, usually instigated by infidelity.[40]
May a Christian remarry while his former spouse is still alive?The innocent party to the adultery may remarry.The innocent party to the adultery may remarry.[41]
When does a fetus become human?Most have no established doctrine. The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod believes life begins at conception.[42][43][44]Ranges from humanity beginning at fertilization to 40 days after conception[45][46][47][48]
Is contraception permissible?Yes, contraceptives are permissible.[36][49]Varies widely[47][50][51][52]
Are blood transfusions permissible?Yes, blood transfusions are permissible.Yes, blood transfusions are permissible.[53][54]
Should women cover their heads?No, head coverings are no longer required due to cultural changes.[55][56][57]
Should Christians drink alcohol?Yes, drinking alcohol is fine as long as one does not get drunk.No, alcohol should be totally avoided aside from Eucharist.[58]
Should Christians fight in wars?Yes, Christians should fight in just wars.[59][60]Yes, Christians can fight in just wars.[61]
Whom does the Holy Spirit come from?The Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son.[62][63]The Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father alone.[64]
Where does a Christian's soul go after death?Christians immediately go to heaven when they die.[10]After death, souls sit conscious in an Intermediate State, with Christians being with Christ.[65]